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Maes:

signifikante relaties

tussen darmproblemen

("leaky gut"),

inflammatie/immuunaktivatie

en (specifieke) symptomen

 

 

 

 


 

Volgens twee recente studies van Maes en anderen:

  • zijn diverse markers van inflammatie en cellulaire immuniteit sterk verhoogd in ME/CVS,
  • is er een significant verband tussen specifieke markers en specifieke symptomen en
  • is er sprake van een relatie tussen een afweerresponse tegen darmbacteriŽn in het bloed
  • (als gevolg van een "lekkende darm"?) en inflammatie/cellulaire immuunactivatie.

 


 

 

Increased IgA responses to the LPS of commensal bacteria is associated with inflammation and activation of cell-mediated immunity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

J Affect Disord. 2011 Oct 1. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.010.

Maes M, Twisk FNM, Kubera M, Ringel K, Leunis J, Geffard M.

 

 

 

Background

 

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is accompanied by

systemic IgA/IgM responses against the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of commensal bacteria;

inflammation, e.g. increased plasma interleukin-(IL)1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α; and

activation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI), as demonstrated by increased neopterin.

 

 

Methods

 

To study the relationships

between the IgA/IgM responses to the LPS of microbiota,

inflammation, CMI and the symptoms of ME/CFS

we measured

the IgA/IgM responses to the LPS of 6 different enterobacteria,

serum IL-1, TNFα, neopterin, and elastase

in 128 patients with ME/CFS and chronic fatigue (CF).

 

Severity of symptoms was assessed by

the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale.

 

 

Results

 

Serum IL-1, TNFα, neopterin and elastase

are significantly higher in patients with ME/CFS than in CF patients.

 

There are significant and positive associations

between the IgA responses to LPS and serum IL-1, TNFα, neopterin and elastase.

 

Patients with an abnormally high IgA response

show increased serum IL-1, TNFα and neopterin levels, and

higher ratings on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

than subjects with a normal IgA response.

 

Serum IL-1, TNFα and neopterin are significantly related to

fatigue, a flu-like malaise, autonomic symptoms, neurocognitive disorders, sadness and

irritability.

 

 

Conclusions

 

The findings show that

increased IgA responses to commensal bacteria in ME/CFS

are associated with inflammation and CMI activation,

which are associated with symptom severity.

 

It is concluded that

increased translocation of commensal bacteria

may be responsible for the disease activity

in some ME/CFS patients.

 

 

Keywords:

 

Chronic fatigue syndrome; inflammation; cytokines; depression; oxidative stress; leaky gut

 

 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165032711005362

 

 


 

 

 

Evidence for inflammation and activation of cell-mediated immunity in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): Increased interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, PMN-elastase, lysozyme and neopterin.

J Affect Disord. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.004.

Maes M, Twisk FNM, Kubera M, Ringel K.

 

 

 

Background

 

There is evidence that

inflammatory pathways and cell-mediated immunity (CMI)

play an important role in the pathophysiology of

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS).

 

Activation of inflammatory and CMI pathways, including increased levels of cytokines,

is known to induce fatigue and somatic symptoms.

 

Given the broad spectrum inflammatory state in ME/CFS,

the aim of this study was to examine

whether inflammatory and CMI biomarkers are increased in individuals with ME/CFS.

 

 

Methods

 

In this study

we therefore measured

plasma interleukin-(IL)1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and PMN-elastase, and

serum neopterin and lysozyme

in 107 patients with ME/CFS, 37 patients with chronic fatigue (CF), and 20 normal controls.

 

The severity of ME/CFS was measured with

the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale.

 

 

Results

 

Serum IL-1, TNFα, neopterin and lysozyme

are significantly higher in patients with ME/CFS

than in controls and CF patients.

 

Plasma PMN-elastase is significantly higher in patients with ME/CFS

than in controls and CF patients and

higher in the latter than in controls.

 

Increased IL-1 and TNFα

are significantly correlated with

fatigue, sadness, autonomic symptoms, and a flu-like malaise;

 

neopterin is correlated with

fatigue, autonomic symptoms, and a flu-like malaise; and

 

increased PMN-elastase is correlated with

concentration difficulties, failing memory and a subjective experience of infection.

 

 

Conclusions

 

The findings show that

ME/CFS is characterized by low-grade inflammation and activation of CMI.

 

The results suggest that

characteristic symptoms of ME/CFS,

such as fatigue, autonomic symptoms and a flu-like malaise,

may be caused by inflammatory mediators, e.g. IL-1 and TNFα.

 

 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165032711005301