van Campen en Moorkens:

 

Temperament en karakter van

ME/CVS-patiŽnten wijkt af.

 

 

 

 


 

In weerwil van studies (zoals klik hier, hier, hier of hier) die aantoonden dat er kwa persoonlijkheid gťťn verschil is tussen ME/CVS-patiŽnten en de doorsnee bevolking

beweren Moorkens en kollega's dat het temperament/karakter van patiŽnten afwijkt.

 

Moorkens en haar kollega-vermoeidheidsdeskundigen lieten

38 patiŽnten (in "behandeling" bij het CVS-referentiecentrum in Antwerpen) en

42 gezonde mensen

vragenlijsten invullen om

op basis van Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, zie toelichting onder)

het temperament en karakter van de deelnemers in kaart te brengen.

 

De TCI-vragenlijst valt uiteen in twee delen:

 

I: Temperament (4 kategorieŽn), te weten

  • op zoek naar uitdagingen die tot beloning/straf leiden (novelty seeking),
  • risikomijdend (harm avoidance),
  • beloningsafhankelijk (reward dependence) en
  • volhardend/met een groot doorzettingsvermogen (persistence), en

II: Karakter (3 kategorieŽn), te weten:

  • zelfgerichtheid (selfdirectness),
  • meegaandheid (cooperativeness) en
  • zichzelf overstijgend/spiritueel (self-transcedence).

 

Volgens de vermoeidheidsdeskundigen wijken ME/CVS-patiŽnten af als het gaat om

 

Risikomijdend gedrag (hoog),

hetgeen volgens de auteurs betekent dat patiŽnten voorzichtiger, angstiger, pessimistischer zijn, zelfs in situaties die anderen niet zou verontrusten (sic!).

 

De belangrijkste faktoren die het verschil met de gezonde mensen verklaren, zijn:

*  zich vooraf zorgen maken/pessimisme ťn

*  snel vermoeid zijn/uitdagingen vermijden.

 

Zelfgerichtheid (laag),

wat er volgens de onderzoekers er onder meer op duidt dat

patiŽnten niet de fout bij zichzelf zoeken en

dat hun houding, gedrag en keuzen opgelegd wordt door de omstandigheden.

 

De voornaamste faktoren die patiŽnten van gezonde mensen onderscheiden, zijn:

*  de schuld buiten je zelf zoeken/de omgeving verwijten ťn

*  een gebrekkige zelfdiscipline/slechte gewoonten.

 

Doorzettingsvermogen/volhardend,

met perfektionistische en obsessieve trekken ("uiteraard"),

hetgeen, volgens onze "experts",  een stressgebonden aandoening goed zou verklaren.

 

 

Uiteraard is psychotherapie de oplossing...

 

Ook al is die psychotherapie aangeboden door enkele van de auteurs, werkzaam in

de referentiecentra, de afgelopen jaren kontraproduktief gebleken (klik hier en hier).

 

 

 

Selffulfilling prophecy:

 

PatiŽnten die het zat zijn deze politiek gestuurde psycho-bla-bla aan te horen

en vragen om medische antwoorden, voldoen uiteraard aan bovenstaand stereotype.

 

 


 

Tot slot twee citaten (waaronder ťťn van de leider der psycheuten, Simon Wessely):

 

 

The stereotype of CFS sufferers as perfectionists

with negative attitudes toward psychiatry was not supported.

 

Personality and social attitudes in chronic fatigue syndrome.

J Psychosom Res. 1999 Oct;47(4):385-97.

Wood B, Wessely S.

 

 

We found that the interferon-g +874T/A and the interleukin-10592C/A polymorphisms significantly affected illness severity, cytokine protein levels, and the duration of illness. These cytokine genotypes acted in synergy to potentiate their influence on disease outcomes.

 

In contrast,

analysis of the influence of psychosocial and environmental factors

(including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status,

personality, coping style, mood, and psychiatric history)

on illness outcomes showed no significant effects.

 

Cytokine polymorphisms have a synergistic effect on severity of the acute sickness response to infection.

Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 1;47(11):1418-25.

Vollmer-Conna U, Piraino BF, Cameron B, Davenport T, Hickie I, Wakefield D, Lloyd AR.

 

 


 

Temperament and Character Inventory

Inventarisatie van Temperament en Karakter

 

 

NS

Novelty seeking (NS)

 

1

Exploratory excitability (NS1)

 

2

Impulsiveness (NS2)

 

3

Extravagance (NS3)

 

4

Disorderliness (NS4)

HA

Harm avoidance (HA)

 

1

Anticipatory worry (HA1)

 

2

Fear of uncertainty (HA2)

 

3

Shyness (HA3)

 

4

Fatigability (HA4)

RD

Reward dependence (RD)

 

1

Sentimentality (RD1)

 

2

Openness to warm communication (RD2)

 

3

Attachment (RD3)

 

4

Dependence (RD4)

PS

Persistence (PS)

 

1

Eagerness of effort (PS1)

 

2

Work hardened (PS2)

 

3

Ambitious (PS3)

 

4

Perfectionist (PS4)

 

SD

Self-directedness (SD)

 

1

Responsibility (SD1)

 

2

Purposeful (SD2)

 

3

Resourcefulness (SD3)

 

4

Self-acceptance (SD4)

 

5

Congruent second nature (SD5)

C

Cooperativeness (C)

 

1

Social acceptance (C1)

 

2

Empathy (C2)

 

3

Helpfulness (C3)

 

4

Compassion (C4)

 

5

Pure-hearted conscience (C5)

ST

Self-transcendence (ST)

 

1

Self-forgetful (ST1)

 

2

Transpersonal identification (ST2)

 

3

Spiritual acceptance (ST3)

 

 

Bron Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperament_and_Character_Inventory

 

 


 

Novelty-Seeking is defined as the heritable tendency to respond with excitement to novel stimuli or cues for potential relief of punishment, thereby activating behavior.

 

Harm-Avoidance involves the tendency to respond intensely to signals of aversive stimuli, thereby inhibiting behavior.

 

People high in Harm Avoidance are fearful, socially inhibited, shy, passive, easily tired, and pessimistic even in situations that do not worry other people.

 

Reward-Dependence is a heritable tendency to respond intensely to signals of reward, thereby maintaining behavior.

 

Persistence involves the tendency to persevere in behaviors t hat have been previously associated with reward or relief from punishment, despite frustration and fatigue. The three character dimensions mature in adulthood and are based on the development of self-concepts.

 

Self-Directedness quantifies the extent to which an individual is responsible, reliable, resourceful, goal-oriented, and self-confident. Individuals low in Self-Directedness are blaming, helpless, irresponsible, unreliable, reactive, and unable to define, set and pursue meaningful internal goals. Such poor resourcefulness and unrealistic behavior are often disadvantageous to the individual.

 

Cooperativeness quantifies the extent to which individuals conceive themselves as integral parts of human society. Highly cooperative persons are described as empathic, tolerant, compassionate, supportive and principled.

 

Self-Transcendence quantifies the extent to which individuals conceive themselves as integral parts of the universe as a whole. Self-transcendent individuals are spiritual, unpretentious, humble, and fulfilled. These traits are adaptively advantageous when people are confronted with suffering, illness, or death, which is inevitable with advancing age.

 

 

Bron (o.a.):

https://psychobiology.wustl.edu/7dimensions.html

 

 


 

Use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) for Assessment of Personality in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Psychosomatics 2009; 50:147Ė154.

Van Campen E, Van Den Eede F, Moorkens G, Schotte C, Schacht R, Sabbe BG, Cosyns P, Claes SJ.

 

 

Background:

 

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)

is characterized by severe and prolonged fatigue,

along with a set of non-specific symptoms and signs,

such as sore throat, muscle pain, headaches,

and difficulties with concentration or memory.

 

 

Objective:

 

The study examined whether

CFS is associated with

specific dimensions of Cloningerís psychobiological model of personality.

 

 

Method:

 

Personality profiles were compared between

38 CFS patients and

42 control subjects

by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI).

 

 

Results:

 

The CFS group showed

significantly higher scores

on Harm-Avoidance

and Persistence.

 

 

Conclusion:

 

The current study

shows a significant association

between specific personality characteristics

and CFS.

 

These personality traits may be implicated in

the onset and/or

perpetuation of CFS

and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

 

 

PMID: 19377023

 

 

Bron:

http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/50/2/147